Alpine regions have always been occupied and managed by peoples of different origins who have, through their intervention and population growth, transformed the natural landscape over time. The coexistence between man and mountains underwent a dramatic change beginning in 1915, when the Great War reached the mountaintops: the Dolomites in particular became the natural theater of the conflict.

The scientific world was challenged to face the new scenario of war: the geography, geology, climate, and physical characteristics of these environments represented a fundamental constraint in the development of instruments and strategies. Pure science was put to the service of wartime pragmatism. The First World War entailed a profound and widespread "militarization of the landscape" begun already in previous years.